Academic Reading 1
Judo, which means 'the gentle way’, is a perfect example of how skill can overcome brute force because it teaches a person to use an opponent's weight against them. So, although a woman may feel intimidated by a taller male opponent, through the skilful application of throws and holds, she can overpower him. It's easy to see why this sport produces selfconfidence and is a great way of releasing tension. The sport of judo was invented in Japan in 1882 to combat bullying in schools. Jigoro Kano founded a judo academy after years of studying other martial arts to discover the most efficient way of deterring his playground enemies. Initially judo was not accepted by other martial artists, but in 1886, Tokyo's police force held a martial art tournament and judo techniques scored highly. Recently, judo has been the most widely practiced of martial arts outside China and Japan.
1- We are told in the passage that judo ........ .
A) was invented by a Japanese policeman
B) was designed to fight bullying in Japanese schools
C) was developed outside China or Japan
D) was never popular with many martial artists
E) is the only martial art practised by women
2- We can conclude from the information given in the passage that to be successful at judo, one must ........ .
A) be bullied by someone much stronger
B) be physically stronger than an opponent
C) be skilled in the techniques of the sport
D) have a lot of tension to release
E) be very tall and heavy
3- We can infer from the passage that judo produces self-confidence because in judo, .......... .
A) one can enter international tournaments throughout the year
B) the philosophy prepares one to feel strong enough to overpower anyone
C) it is possible for one to beat an opponent who is physically stronger
D) It is quite easy to apply the techniques one has learnt
E) one grows very big physically because of the practice